Silicone surfactants are composed of silicone copolymers providing high performance effects and polyethers that provide their high surface activity. Silicone surfactants reduce the surface tension of polar and non-polar liquids to 15-20 mN/m with organic-based surfactants.
Silicone surfactants have excellent thermal stability, high surface activity, and outstanding ecological safety and biodegradability, which are mainly attributed to the feature of the siloxane chain and they have a very high molecular weight.
Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, which stems from intermolecular interactions. The energy of a solid relates to the reaction between atoms, molecules, and ions, including covalent bonds, ionic bonds, metallic bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrogen bonds. In this case, the cores are mainly constructed using chemical bonds. The surface energy of the cores is so high that water can achieve complete wetting. However, the molecules that OSSF adsorbed on the core surface employ physical forces, so the surface energy reduces, allowing only partial wetting by water.